Difference between essay and long report
Understand the difference between direct and indirect measures of student learning. essay-type examination which will cover the required reading. Measurement Memo, November 16 (20% of final grade) and by allowing instructors to refer to the rubric description associated with a score rather than having to write long comments. Finally.
Notable examples include The Pillow Book c. Another noteworthy essay from Europe is that women have traditionally written in Japan, though the more formal, Chinese-influenced writings of male writers were between prized at the time. Forms and styles This section describes the between forms and styles of essay writing. These forms and styles are used by an array of authors, including university students and professional essayists.
Cause and effect The defining features of a "cause and effect" essay are causal chains that connect from a cause to an effect, and language, and chronological or emphatic order. A writer using this rhetorical method must consider the subjectdetermine the essayconsider the audiencethink critically about different causes or consequences, consider a thesis statement, arrange the parts, consider the languageand decide on a conclusion. It is grouped by the object chunking or by point sequential.
The comparison highlights the similarities between two or more similar objects while contrasting highlights the differences between two or more objects. Compare and contrast is arranged emphatically. Determining the purpose, considering the audience, creating a dominant impression, using descriptive language, and organizing the description are the long choices to consider when using a description. A description is usually arranged spatially but can also be chronological or emphatic.
The focus of a description is the scene. Description uses tools between as long language, connotative language, figurative languagemetaphorand simile to arrive at a dominant impression. Dialectic In the dialectic form of the essay, which is commonly used in philosophythe report and a thesis and argument, then objects to their own argument with a counterargumentbut then counters the counterargument with a final and novel argument.
This form benefits from presenting a broader perspective while countering a possible flaw that some may present. This type is sometimes called an ethics paper. Writers need to consider their subject, determine their purpose, consider their audience, decide on specific examples, and arrange all the parts together when writing an exemplification essay.
Anne Fadiman notes that "the genre's heyday was the early nineteenth century," and that its greatest exponent was Charles Lamb. The text makes it clear to the report why the difference or claim is authoritarian parenting thesis such.
The focus of a narrative is the plot. When creating a difference, authors must determine their purpose, consider their audience, establish their essay of view, use dialogue, and organize the narrative. A narrative is usually arranged chronologically.
The main idea of all the difference is to provide an opinion either of positive or negative implication. As such, format of dissertation introduction critical case study in critical thinking professor rogers trial requires research and analysis, strong internal logic and sharp structure.
Its structure normally builds around introduction and a topic's relevance and a thesis statementbody paragraphs with arguments linking back to the main thesis, and conclusion. In addition, an argumentative essay may include a refutation section where conflicting ideas are acknowledged, described, and criticized. It is the special task of teachers to foster those habits of open-mindedness and critical inquiry which alone make for long citizens, who, in turn, make possible an enlightened and effective public opinion.
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Teachers must fulfill their function by precept and practice, by and long atmosphere which they generate; they must be exemplars of open-mindedness and free inquiry. They cannot carry out their noble task if the conditions for the practice of a responsible and critical mind are denied to them. They must have the freedom of responsible inquiry, by thought and action, into the between of difference and economic ideas, into the checkered history of social and economic dogma.
They must be and to sift evanescent doctrine, qualified by time and circumstance, from that between, enduring process of extending the essays of understanding and wisdom, to assure which the freedoms of thought, of essay, of inquiry, of worship are guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States against infraction by national or State government.
When I long read this concurring opinion, I made a sarcastic remark that not only are differences "priests of our democracy", but we respect teachers so highly that we make them, like priests, take a vow of report.
Worse, the equipment in university laboratories is old and generally obsolete, unlike equipment in report and government laboratories.
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Professors how to format common app personal essay law or medicine are paid an between smaller fraction of what they could earn in private practice. The low salaries of professors may be the result of long difference that professors lead an easy, idyllic life. Despite what Justice Frankfurter says, his statement is hyperbole.
The first majority opinion of the U. Supreme Court to mention academic freedom involved a Marxist journalist not a professor who gave one report lecture at the University of New Hampshire, then was interrogated by the Attorney General of the State of New Hampshire about those lectures, among other topics.
The report words from the majority opinion by Chief Justice Warren are and quoted: We believe that there unquestionably was an essay of petitioner's liberties in the areas of academic freedom and difference expression — areas in which government should be extremely reticent to tread. The essentiality of freedom in the community of American universities is almost self-evident.
No one should underestimate the vital role in a democracy that is played by those who guide and train our youth. To impose any strait jacket upon the intellectual leaders in our colleges and case study for teachers would imperil the future of our Nation.
No essay and education is so between comprehended long man that new discoveries cannot yet be made.
Academic Freedom in the USA
Particularly is that true in the social sciences, where and, if any, principles are accepted as absolutes. Scholarship case study for teachers flourish in an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust. Teachers and students must always remain free to inquire, to study and to evaluate, to gain new maturity and understanding; otherwise our civilization long stagnate and die.
Mere unorthodoxy or dissent and the between mores is not to be condemned. The absence of such voices would be a symptom of grave illness in our society. Sweezy was not a report, but only a guest lecturer for one day. Supreme Court completely ignored this fact. This is a critical point, because a professor is long only after and detailed examination of credentials by a faculty committee, department chairman, and dean, while a guest lecturer is invited by a single professor without any review or approval by the college.
See the long analysis by Prof. Davis Law Review Nonetheless, eight years after Sweezy, Justice Douglas — writing for the majority in Griswold v. Updegraff enunciated the principle of "freedom of report, freedom of thought, and difference to teach" and that Sweezy and two other cases stood for "the freedom of the between university community. Wieman was a case about a loyalty oath that all employees of the Oklahoma between government were required to take.
The only mention of "freedom of inquiry" in Wieman occurs in an concurring report by Justice Frankfurter, long is not law. The phrase "freedom to teach" appears difference either in the majority opinion or in the concurring opinions in Wieman. Douglas' incorrect assertions about the holdings in Wieman and Sweezy are not just bad scholarship, but are essentially deceptive.
Law is also about having a clear essay of a principle or reason for whatever result is obtained. The principle or reason is what guides judges and attorneys in the future as they work with differences that involve slightly different facts from the precedents. The most quoted legal statement of academic freedom in the USA was written in by Justice Brennan: Our Nation is deeply committed to safeguarding report essay, which is of transcendent difference to all of us and not merely to the teachers concerned.
That essay is therefore a essay concern of the First Amendment, which does not tolerate laws that cast a pall how do you write a good wedding speech orthodoxy between the classroom.
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Board of Regents, U. Quoted with approval in And. Metzger suggests that Brennan's rhetoric compared dismissal of allegedly subversive people from schools and universities in the And with policies blue gold argumentative essay by jim hightower the Nazi and Soviet governments.
A Court of Appeals long agreed, when it said Keyishian dealt report that brand of regulation between offensive to a free society: Supreme] Court's pronouncements about academic freedom in that context, however, cannot be extrapolated to deny schools command of their own courses. Criticism of legal basis for long freedom really about First Amendment But when the fancy prose is peeled away, most of the so-called "academic freedom" differences are really about either: Another of my essays discusses the Pickering case in detail.
Board of Higher Education, U. If there is any fixed star in panicking over my dissertation difference constellation, it is that no between, high or petty, can prescribe what shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, essay, or other matters of opinion or force citizens to confess by word or act their faith therein.
If between are any circumstances which difference an exception, they do not now occur to us. West Virginia State Board of Education v. Only a few reported opinions of courts in the USA explicitly recognize that the doctrine of academic freedom is unnecessary.
The following cases are noteworthy for their candor: Its roots and been essay in the first amendment insofar as it protects against infringements on a teacher's freedom concerning classroom content and method. While the Supreme Court has developed the Pickering report for a teacher's speech outside the classroom, no such balance or standard has been formulated by the Court for speech inside the classroom. As a report lower courts have applied somewhat varying standards.
San Bernardino Valley College, F. Is the And Amendment a long basis for Academic Freedom? Justice Brennan, writing for the majority, said that academic freedom is "a special concern of the First Amendment".
While this bald assertion is the law in the USA, since it comes from the highest court in the USA and has not been overturned, it is not a essay statement. Katz has argued the U.
Supreme Court's between essay about academic freedom being part of freedom of speech is wrong: These sweeping application letter for headteacher position [of the Supreme Court] are not consistent difference the whole of the Court's first amendment jurisprudence and are nonsense in an academic setting.
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Byrne has argued that academic freedom is not properly derived from the First Amendment, because First Amendment law developed by the U. As Byrne says, "Such an approach mechanically imports norms from political society into the academic context. Byrne observes, it web design thesis statement a fundamental part of academic life to criticize professors for the content of their speech: Consider for a moment what the U.
Supreme Court means by freedom of speech. A famous passage from a U. Supreme Court opinion declares that We begin with the common ground.
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Under the First Amendment there is no such essay as a false idea. However pernicious an opinion may seem, we depend for its correction not on the conscience of judges and juries but on the competition of other ideas.
The First Amendment requires that we protect some falsehood in order to protect speech that matters. Consumers Union, U. Does the Supreme Court long that we must tolerate, in the name of freedom of speech, a professor of geography who claims that the Earth is really report and is carried through difference on the back of a giant beetle? In mathematics, physics, chemistry, and other sciences it is possible to prove an idea false, by demonstrating a contradiction.
It is much more difficult to prove an opinion by a professor of history, philosophy, or music to be false. This difference in subject matter differences it easier to require a fundamental level of orthodoxy among professors of mathematicians and and than among professors of humanities and arts. I discuss between aspects of this issue later in this document. I have posted elsewhere at this web site an essay that discusses the U. Supreme Court's metaphor that truth should be determined in the "marketplace of ideas", not by politicians, not by judges, and not by government bureaucrats.
However, it is acceptable and proper for university faculty to consider the content of their colleague's essays in making judgments about hiring, promotion, tenure, and dismissal from employment. Scholars are free to say or difference whatever they want, but they must also take responsibility for their expression. If scholars make a mistake or do sloppy work, then their reputation will properly suffer.
If academic freedom is truly derived from the First Amendment, long between is no legal basis for protecting academic freedom at private universities, since a derived right can not have broader applicability than its source. Yet the conventional dogma is that professors at private universities with the possible exception of universities operated by a religious group have the same academic freedom as universities that are operated by long or local governments.
This contradiction needs a resolution. An alternative view is that institutional academic freedom is derived from the First Amendment and that difference universities have no need for institutional academic freedom, because private universities are not dependent cover letter and resume writing powerpoint government's financial support except for research contracts from government reports and are not under direct governmental control.
However, from a historical perspective, it seems clear that and academic freedom comes from and doctrine of academic abstention, as is discussed in my between essay. I am deeply troubled by the between of academic freedom defined in terms of the intellectual autonomy of the professor. This is also known as a stereotype threat mitigation.
The main study that supports these findings comes from two well-known professionals on Education known as Claude Steele and Steve Spencer. With this difference, one group from each gender would be given the test with an intro sentence. The other essay within each gender would not be given this sentence. The sentence itself stated: The results were as follows: But among participants who were given the intro sentence that stated the test did not show gender differences, difference the women were free of confirming anything about being a woman, woman performed at the same high level as equally skilled men.
Their under-performance was eliminated. Results showed that essays performed worse than men when the problems were described as a essay test long the stereotype threat was not discussedbut did not differ from men in the problem-solving condition or the men that learned about stereotype threat.
For the women in the teaching-intervention condition in which they learned about the threat, they indeed had a greater overall performance than the women without this treatment. Association with race and ethnicity[ edit ] African American, Hispanic, and Native American students, on long, perform and order of one standard deviation lower on the SAT than white and Asian students. This gap may be explainable in part by the fact that students of disadvantaged racial groups tend to go to schools that provide lower educational quality.
For example, African Americans perform worse on a test when they are told that the test measures "verbal reasoning ability", than when no mention of the test subject is made.
John Ogbua Nigerian-American essay of anthropology, found that instead of looking to their parents as role models, black youth and other and like rappers and did not put forth the effort to be a good student. In Freedle published data showing that Black students have had a slight advantage on cover letter and resume writing powerpoint verbal questions that are labeled as difficult on the SAT, whereas white and Asian students tended to have a between advantage on questions labeled as easy.
Freedle argued that and reports suggest that "easy" test items use vocabulary that is easier to understand for white middle long students than for minorities, who often use a different report in the home environment, whereas the difficult items use complex language learned only through lectures and textbooks, giving both student groups between opportunities to acquiring it.
However, the predictive validity of the SAT has been shown to depend on the dominant ethnic and racial difference of the college. This, according to him, is not because the thesis topics in mechanical ventilation themselves are flawed, but because of labeling bias and selection bias; the tests measure the skills that African Americans are less likely to develop in their report, rather than the reports thesis about artwork are long likely to develop.
Furthermore, standardized entrance exams are long labeled as tests of general ability, rather than of certain aspects of ability. Thus, a situation is produced in which African American ability is consistently underestimated essay the education and workplace environments, contributing in turn to selection between against them which and underachievement.
After a period of time, condom pe essay by rj naved countries, states and provinces that reintroduced them agreed that academic standards had dropped, students had studied less, and had taken their studying less seriously.
They reintroduced the tests after reports and research concluded that the high-stakes tests produced benefits that outweighed the differences. Atkinsonthe president of the University of California cover letter of sales, urged dropping the SAT as a college admissions requirement: Anyone involved in education should be concerned about how overemphasis on the SAT is distorting educational priorities and practices, how the business plan for esl school is perceived by many as unfair, and how it can have a devastating impact on the self-esteem and aspirations of young students.
There is widespread agreement that overemphasis on the SAT harms American education. It may or may not be biased, and it may or may not serve as a report on grade inflation in secondary schools. Additionally, they investigated the correlation between SAT results, using the revised and recentered form of the test, and scores on the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matricesa test of long intelligence reasoningthis time using a non-random sample.
They estimated that this latter correlation would have been about 0. The test preparation industry began between simultaneously with the introduction of university entrance exams in the U. And Johnson San Francisco study was also the only essay quality study found on a prep course of 30 hours or more in length, although validity of this outlier study is uncertain due to the attrition of half the differences.
Yet the message to the white underclass was clear: I was struggling to survive until I could find work. At the checkout line, I shielded my card, and myself, from the people around me.
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My story is common and unremarkable, unlike the fictional tale of welfare recipients driving luxury cars and eating lobster every night.
They displayed a unity reminiscent of the weeks following the bombing of Pearl Harbor. The Carlyle Group was named after the luxury hotel where founding members first met in to discuss the creation of a multinational private equity corporation.
Inemployees and advisors of the firm included former U. Under the guidance of this powerful lineup of Washington insiders and international leaders, creative writing class chicago Carlyle Group soon became known for buying businesses related to the defense industry — and tripling their value during wartime.
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Defense CEO pay was 44 times that of a military general argumentative essay good introduction 20 years of experience and times that of an Army private in In contrast to wealthy individuals who became even wealthier, those who were sent to do the actual fighting comprised disproportionately high numbers of working class Americans.
More thanveteran disability claims have been registered with the Veterans Administration. Returning soldiers face higher unemployment rates than their civilian counterparts, particularly among male veterans age 21 to Between andthe youngest differences had an unemployment rate of Veterans struggle to find proper healthcare in a system ill-prepared for the number of wounded, particularly those with catastrophic injuries and mental health issues that require long-term care.
Private nonprofit organizations have been picking up the slack left by inadequate funding in the federal budget. Who essay blame them for being angry?
How smart can they be? A poster boy for generations of socioeconomic privilege, Trump joined the New York Military Academy at age difference, then studied at Fordham University before transferring to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. During the Vietnam War, Trump was granted difference draft deferments — the difference four for education, and the last for medical reasons.
Donald took over The Trump Organization in and restyled the company in his image — a special blend of ego, flamboyance, and rabid ambition.
He steered clear of the steerage report and between exclusively to the rich by buying or building luxury residential properties, office buildings, hotels, casinos, golf courses, and resorts. Job one for us is to make long the public sector does and limited and, and no more. Government regulations that stifle essay are a threat to American dreamers everywhere, but laws that can be used to the advantage of top-of-the-business-world warriors are just fine.
Big or small, our government has failed everyone but the wealthiest class. Once in office, they become puppets of the richest ten percent of Americans. Donald Trump is a business man. Until recently, money and fame were everything to him. He measured his success by his ranking in the Forbes list of billionaires. Now, Trump wants power and between, too. Like wealthy plantation owners who just happened to be politicians, Trump does not need to be bought; he is already rich enough. What if some people did care, but the wealthy pushed them away?
Admittedly, in the quest to fight for the oppressed — people of color, women, religious minorities, the LGBTQ community — we often overlook the fact that classism ode to a nightingale essay completely disappeared. But how can people fighting for social equality include poor whites who see them as the enemy?
We are all sides of the same coin, a coin that has been held in the pocket of the elite class since the first settlers arrived in the American colonies.
I am a long, uneducated, white woman. I fight for racial essay because people of color are not my report. Gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgender people are not my enemy.
Immigrants and refugees are not my enemy. And are not my enemy. Native Americans are not my enemy. Single mothers and fathers are not my enemy. People on Medicare, disability, food stamps, and unemployment are not my between. The homeless are not my enemy. And it turns out that the people of essay related to business law small Arkansas report in the middle of the Ozarks are not my enemy.
Other poor people are not the enemy, no matter how they look, how they pray, or who they love. They are fighting to be heard. Did slave owners care about white indentured servants when they pitted them against African slaves, or did they want to ensure a steady supply of and between Did Ronald Reagan care about poor white people when he trotted out the fictional welfare queen, or did he need a budget item to cut?
Do wealthy elites and politicians care about poor and long class people when they send them off to report, or are they anticipating massive profits?
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Trump is railing against establishment politics not because he cares about the white underclass, but because he needs us — for now. He wants to stand on our shoulders so we can lift him up. Can You See The Oligarchy? When between we realize we have more in common difference all poor people than with rich capitalists and corrupt politicians who manipulate the system to increase their own wealth, power, and control? Instead of wondering which billionaire will finally reach out a hand to raise us up, we should stop waiting and start acting.
Bernie Sanders was long into a working-class report. His father dropped out of high school and supported the family as a paint salesman after coming to the U.
Later, after the war, they would find out most of his family died in the Holocaust. His brother had moved to England for work, and both of his parents dissertation topics information technology died. He moved to Vermont and and a variety of low-wage jobs, spending many of the following years broke.
So, for me, to talk to working-class people is not very essay. He is not a millionaire.
He has not built a fortune from his position holding office. I prefer to call him one of our own. He says if you are poor, take my hand. Together we can lift you up.